History of Tangkoko park

Tangkoko-duasudara Nature reserve north sulawesi

Tangkoko duasudara is the largest intact remaining in minahasa,the northernmost regency on the island of sulawesi. in it you will findthe spectacular mixtur of bio-diversity that is unique to sulawesi. a place known as the "land where world's collide,because this is where Earth's tectonic forces brought Asia and Australia in to contact,thus proqocing sulawesi's bizzrre,twisted shape.Only here will you find ancient immigrants from Asia,like sulawesi crested black macaque and the Oddly enigamatic spectral Tarsier living side-by side with strange marsupials,such as the bear cuscus, a teddy bear-like creature up in the tree;s and all around you are an amazing diversity of unique and beautiful birt life, Only two hours from modern city of manado. Tangkoko takes you back to the last pristine tropical rainforest in northernmost sulawesi.

The first conservation area at Mount Tongkoko has been established in 1919. To this the Duasaudara area has been added in 1978, and the Batuangus and Batuputih areas in 1981, together encompassing a total of 8,718 hectares. An area of 8718 hectare conservation includes four places, namely an area of 615 hectares Batuputih TWA, Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve covering an area of 3196 hectares including Tangkoko-Batuangus Mountain region and surrounding areas, CA Duasudara covering 4299 hectares, including Mount Duasudara and surrounding areas, and TWA 635 square Batuangus hectares. All four are under the management of the Forestry Department, through the Natural Resources Conservation Center (BKSDA)

Flora and fauna
Tangkoko Nature Reserve protects at least 127 mammal, 260 bird and 104 reptile and amphibian species. Of these 79 mammal, 80 bird and 68 reptile and amphibian species are endemic to the island. Threatened mammals include the Celebes crested macaque, of which about 5,500 remain on the island, the Sulawesi bear cuscus and Sulawesi dwarf cuscus.
Batuputih TWA is usually much closer to the area Tangkoko Nature Reserve. Most tourists who came to admire the diversity of wildlife in this conservation area, because supposedly unique Sulawesi is famous as a mixing or transition zone zoogeography of two regions namely Asia and Australia. You could say nature reserve is home Tangkoko Sulawesi significant wildlife.
Animals that can be found at Tangkoko among other birds Manguni (Otus manadensis) which became a symbol of the Minahasa region, along with seven other Manguni bird species.  these birds come out at night and share the habitat with other night animals like tarsiers, bats and Sulawesian civet.
Apart from Celebes black ape and Tangkasi or tarsier, Sulawesi typical of other animals easily found in this region is fitch bear (Ailurops ursinus), pygmy possum (Strigocuscus celebensis), or the looming Sulawesi hornbills (Rhyticeros cassidix), and kangkareng (Penelopides exarrhatus) .
In this rare wildlife conservation area, you can be in the gate I at the entrance where you can enjoy the beach and to achieve Gate II can be reached by car. Before reaching the second gate you’ll find a secondary tropical forests where there are trees and some crops such as betel pioneer forest, wood flowers and binunga.
From the Gate II, you can park the car and started to walk exploring the forest and will meet with a group of Celebes black ape (Macaca nigra). Various voices will be heard when the birds also came closer and closer into the forest from Rangon, Kingfisher, pigeons, and many more.

There are two climatic zones in North Sulawesi based on the ratio between dry and wet periods. The eastern part of North Sulawesi has ten to twelve months of wet months and less than two dry months, while the western part shows more seasonality with seven to nine consecutive wet months and three or less consecutive dry months. Rainfall is higher between November and May when the winds are from the north. During this period, monthly rainfall averages 314 mm.

Crested Black Macaque (Macaca nigra) Sulawesi is one of the biodiversity hotspots due to its location within the Wallacea. The 7 endemic macaque species are of extraordinary importance for the understanding of primate evolution, but little is known about them from the wild. Due to habitat destruction and poaching, all are threatend by extinction with crested macaques being critically endangered. (IUCN Red List 2011).
 is the most conspicuous mammal species in the reserve. It is endemic to the forests of North Sulawesi to Tangkoko Nature Reserve and Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve near Kotamobagu. Crested Black Macaques (as the name suggests) are entirely black, except for their hind parts which are called ichial callosities (sitting pads that are very hard, very much like the calluses on human hands). Older adult males sometimes have slightly grey backs, like silverback mountain gorilla males. Early natural historians called them 'black apes' because of the apparent lack of a tail. However, they posses very short tails. Adult females are easily recognized by their inflated red bhind which indicates that they are in estrus (sexual swelling). When their behind looks like a big red balloon, it means they are at the peak of estrus--around tow weeks after beginning their menstrual cycle. Newborn babies up to two months old have thin sparse fur and cling to their mothers.
 Spectral Tarsier (Tarsius spectrum)
is a Sulawesi endemic species, comprised of four subspecies, that is distributed throughout Sulawesi but whose population is found in pockets in North, Central, and South Sulawesi. They are called tarsiers because of their elongated tarsal region in which their tibia and fibula bones are fused thus allowing their great leaping ability. They are tiny animals (their head and body length at approximately 10 cm weighing approximately little over 100 g). The ears and eyes are enormous. The tail is much longer than the body and nearly naked except for the last third portion of the tail that is tufted. They have nails like humans except for the 'toilet claws' on the second and third digits of their feet. These toilet claws are used for grooming. The tarsier is a nocturnal animal (i.e. animal whose activities take place mostly at night and early mornings before dawn), hunting for insects like katydids (i.e. long-horned grasshoppers), crickets, and roaches. They often cling to a tree trunk and use their highly sensitive eyes and mobile ears to detect their prey. Once the prey is located, thou pounce upon them with their grasping hands. Their social group is made up of a mated pairs and their infant. Tarsiers occur mostly in lower elevations in scrub and lowland rainforest habitats. At evening you will hear the vocal duets and choruses in early evening and before dawn.
Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus)
is one of two endemic cuscus species belong to the Phalangeridae family that occur on Sulawesi.It s a marsupial (females lacking a complete placenta, and most species having females with an abdominal pouch in which the infant is carried). It's body and head length measures 56 cm and the tail which is prehensile (i.e. grasping) measures 54 cm, and can weigh up to 8 kg. The body is mostly dark brown and grey with the upper chest cream colored. It has the tiny ears and dark brown eyes. Bear cuscus occupy the high strata of the forest structure feeding on leaves and fruits. The social group is comprised of only the mother and her infant (up to 8 months). Otherwise, the adult males and females are solitary except for mating.
 Sulawesi Dwarf Cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis)
For night viewing, you can take your flashlight/torch to look for them along the beach trail and in gardens along the Batuputih roads. As with the Bear Cuscus, they are marsupials. The head and body measures 30-4- cm, the tail approximately 35 cm, and it weighs 1.5-2 kg. It has orangish brown fur on its back and a black stripe across the top of the head and neck. Its underside is cream colored. It has tiny ears and blue eyes with black pupils. Unlike the Bear Cuscus, the Dwarf Cuscus is primarily frugivorous. Little information is available on which fruits they feed on, but they are known to raid crops to feed on bananas, mangoes, and papaya. Its social grouping is though to be a mated pair.
Sulawesi is the single most important island in the world for fruit bats. The island is home to 22 species, including many rare and peculiar forms. Very little is known about the bats living at Tangkoko, partly because no-one has looked! The two commonest species are Sulawesi Rousette (Rousettus celebensis) andLesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) and one occasionally catches sight of them in a spotlight beam. The rousette is the larger species with a wingpsan of some 50 cm and is dark brown in color; it roosts in caves along the coast from Pos 3. The Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat is smaller with a wingspan of about 40 cm, and has a ruff of bright orange fur which is particularly striking in males. This species makes its roost in trees and small groups of 5-10 bats can be found hanging under the large leaves of palm trees and, in scrub forest, banana plants.
There are two types of squirrel that are commonly seen in the forest, both of which are endemic to Sulawesi. The first species, the Northern Dwarf Squirrel(Prosciurillus murinus) is a small, has brown fur and a gray belly. It is very common at Tangkoko and can often be seen running on the ground or racing up tree trunks. Pale Dwarf Squirrel (Prosciurillus leucomus) is also brown with a grayish belly but has a very obvious band of silver-gray fur on the back of the head extending on to the ears. Again this is a common species at Tangkoko, but it spends less time on the ground that its cousin the Northern Dwarf Squirrel. Both squirrels are very noisy and their repetitive, high pitched chatterings are a common sound at Tangkoko.

Sulawesi Forest Pig (Sus celebensis)
is thought to be a relatively recent arrival to Sulawesi. It measures 90-150 cm. Coloration varies between dark gray to black. The body is covered with thick long bristles with the tail covered with short hairs. They are mostly found in closed canopy forests traveling in groups of 2-5. They feed mostly on fallen fruits, roots rhizomes, and tubers, but also go after agricultural crops. The best chance of seeing them in on the Puncak trail.
Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), Now can see them in gorontalo
is one of the most bizarre looking animlas in Sulawesi. This species comprised of three subspecies is distributed over north, central, and Southeast Sulawesi as well as on satellite islands such as Togian, Sula, and Buru. The head and body measures 85-100 cm and the tail measures 25-30 cm, and weighs up to 100 kg. Its skin is rough with virtually no hair, and is grayish in color. Its most striking feature is its tusks--the upper tusks grow through the top of the muzzle and then curve back toward the eyes. Some researchers have suggested that these tusks can be hooked over the lower tusks of the opponent. Babirusa travel in small groups and vocalize by giving out low grunting moans. Unlike other pigs, babirusa females give birth to only one or two infants. Babirusa are thought to be primarily nocturnal although they travel and forage during daytime. They do not root like other pigs do but eat fruit and break open dead wood to obtain beetle larvae. Babirusas are extremely rare in Tangkoko. Only three have been spotted between the early 1980s and mid 1990s. Their decline at Tangkoko is most likely due to the intense hunting that took place during this period.


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